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              > 小學英語 > 小學英語教材 > 希利爾:美國學生文史經典套裝 >  第121課

              雙語+MP3|美國學生世界歷史54 畫“連城”游戲,三個國王成一行

              所屬教程:希利爾:美國學生文史經典套裝

              瀏覽:

              qinting

              2018年10月26日

              隨身學
              掃描二維碼方便學習和分享
              http://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/10000/10122/美國學生世界歷史-54.mp3
              http://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012


              54
              Tick-Tack-Toe; Three Kings in a Row
              畫"連城"游戲,三個國王成一行

                   HERE are three kings:
               Richard of England,
               Philip of France, and
               Frederick Barbarossa of Germany.
                   If you say their names over several times, they keep ringing through your mind and you can't seem to stop thinking them whether you want to or not.
                   Jerusalem was captured. But it didn't stay captured very long. Muslims attacked and won it back again.
                   The Christians started a Second Crusade. Thereafter about once in a lifetime during the next two hundred years there was one Crusade after another-eight or nine in all. Sometimes these later Crusades won back Jerusalem for a while, but for a while only. Sometimes they did not succeed at all.

              Richard of England, Philip of France, and Frederick Barbarossa
              英國的理查、法國的腓力和腓特烈·巴巴羅薩
                   The Third Crusade took place about a hundred years after the first; that is, nearly 1200 A.D. These three kings-Richard of England, Philip of France, and Frederick Barbarossa-started on the Third Crusade. But they didn't all finish. I'll tell you about them in three-two-one-order.

                   Frederick's name, Barbarossa, meant Red Beard, for in those days it was the custom to give kings nicknames that described them. Frederick's capital was in Aix-la-Chapelle, as Charlemagne's had been, but Frederick was king only of Germany. When a young man, he had tried to make his country as large and powerful as the new Roman Empire that Charlemagne had made. But he was not a great enough man, and so was unable to do what Charlemagne had done. Frederick was quite old when he started out on the Third Crusade with the other two kings. But he never reached Jerusalem, for in crossing a stream on the way, he was drowned. So much for Frederick, the third king.
                   The second king, Philip of France, was jealous of the first king, Richard, because Richard was so very popular and well liked by the Crusaders. Philip finally gave up the Crusade and went back to France.
                   Richard of England was then the only king left on the Crusade. It would have been better if he, too, had gone back to his country instead of gallivanting off on a Crusade. But he thought going on a Crusade was much better sport than staying at home and working over the difficult business of governing his people.
                   Richard was kind and gentle, yet strong and brave. Richard the Lion-Hearted they called him. He was hard on wrongdoers but fair and square. People loved him, but they feared him, too, for he punished the wicked and those who misbehaved.
                   Even Richard's enemies admired him. The Muslim king of Jerusalem at the time of this Third Crusade was named Saladin. Saladin, though being attacked by Richard, admired him very much and even became his friend. So Saladin, instead of fighting Richard, finally made a friendly agreement with him to treat the Holy Sepulcher and the pilgrims properly. As this arrangement was satisfactory to everyone, Richard left Jerusalem to Saladin and started back home.
                   On his way home Richard was captured and put in prison by the son of Frederick Barbarossa and held for a large ransom from England. Richard's friends did not know where he was and did not know how to find him.
                   Now, it so happened that Richard had a favorite minstrel named Blondel. Blondel had composed a song of which Richard was very fond. When Richard was taken prisoner, Blondel wandered over the country singing everywhere this favorite song in the hope that Richard might hear it and reveal where he was. One day he happened to sing beneath the very tower where Richard was imprisoned. Richard heard him and answered by singing the refrain of the song. His friends then knew where he was, the ransom was paid, and Richard was allowed to go free.
                   When, at last, Richard did reach England, he still had adventures. This was the time when Robin Hood was robbing travelers. Richard planned to have himself taken prisoner by Robin Hood, so that he might capture him and bring him to justice. Richard disguised himself as a monk and was captured as he had planned. But he found Robin Hood such a good fellow after all that he forgave him and his men.
                   Richard's coat of arms was a design of three lions, one above the other; and this same design of three lions now forms part of the shield of England.
                   After Richard's Crusade, there was a Fourth Crusade, and then in the year 1212-which is an easy date to remember, because it is simply the number 12 repeated one, two, one, two there was a crusade of children only. This was known therefore as the Children's Crusade. It was led by a French boy about twelve years old named Stephen, who was named after the first Christian martyr.
                   Children from all over France left their homes and their mothers and fathers-it seems strange to us that their mothers and fathers let them start off on such a trip-and marched south to the Mediterranean Sea. Here they expected the waters of the sea would part and allow them to march on dry land to Jerusalem, as they had read in the Bible the waters of the Red Sea had done to allow the Israelites to leave Egypt. But the waters did not part.
                   Some sailors, however, offered to take the children to Jerusalem in their ships. They said they would do it for nothing, just for the love of the Lord. But it turned out that these sailors were really pirates, and as soon as they got the children on board their ships they steered them straight into the very land of their enemies, the Muslims. Here, it is said, the pirates sold the children as slaves. This is not a Grimm's fairy tale, and the pirates were not trapped by the children, so I cannot make a happy ending, for it was not.
                   The last or Eighth Crusade was led by a king of France called Louis. He was so pious and so devoted to the Lord that he was made a saint and ever after has been called St. Louis. Yet this Crusade failed, and ever since that time Jerusalem was ruled by Muslims until, in 1918, it was captured by the English, who kept it until 1948 when the state of Israel was established. Now, both Israeli Jews and Palestinians-Muslim and Christian-want control of the Holy City. It's very sad that this city that is so sacred to Jews, Christians, and Muslims is always at the center of a war.
                   Not all the Crusaders were good Christians. Like some people nowadays, a great many were Christian only in name. In fact, though strange to say, quite a number of the Crusaders were nothing but scalawags, looking for excitement and adventure, and they went on a Crusade merely as an excuse to rob and plunder.
                   The Crusades did not succeed in their object, which was to keep Jerusalem for the Christians. In spite of that, the Crusades did a great deal of good. When the Crusades first started, the Crusaders were not nearly as civilized as the people they went to conquer. But travel sometimes teaches people more than books, and it taught the Crusaders. They learned the customs of the other lands through which they went. They learned languages and literature. They learned history and art.
                   There were then no public schools. Only a very, very few people had any education at all. The Crusades then did what schools might have done. They taught the people of Europe and opened up to them a whole new world of culture and knowledge.






                   有三個國王:
               英國的理查,
               法國的腓力,
               德國的腓特烈·巴巴羅薩。
                   如果你把他們的名字反復多念幾遍,這些名字就會縈繞在你的腦海里,似乎怎么都揮之不去。
                   耶路撒冷被基督徒占領了。但是好景不長。穆斯林發起進攻又把它奪了回去。
                   基督徒開始了第二次十字軍東征。此后的二百年里,百年一遇的事發生了,他們發起了一次接一次的十字軍東征--總共有八九次。有時,這些后來的十字軍會把耶路撒冷奪過來,但都好景不長。有時,他們則一敗涂地。
                   第三次十字軍東征發生在第一次十字軍東征后大約100年左右,就是差不多公元1200年。這三個國王--英國的理查,法國的腓力和腓特烈·巴巴羅薩--開始了第三次十字軍東征。但是他們并沒有都完成這次征戰。我將按照從后往前的順序先講腓特烈國王的故事,然后再講其他兩位國王。
                   腓特烈的名字,巴巴羅薩,意思是紅胡子,因為給國王起個生動的綽號來描述他們是當時的風俗。腓特烈國王的首都在亞琛,查理曼也曾在那里建都,但是腓特烈只是德國的國王。腓特烈年輕力壯的時候,也想讓他的國家像查理曼的新羅馬帝國那樣龐大、強盛。可是他還不夠英明神武,所以成就不了查理曼那樣的豐功偉業。他和其他兩位國王發動第三次十字軍東征的時候,年紀已經很大了。不過他從未抵達耶路撒冷,因為半路上過一條小河時他掉進河里淹死了。這就是第三個國王腓特 烈的情況。
                   第二個國王,法國的腓力非常嫉妒第一個國王理查,因為理查深受十字軍戰士的愛戴。最終腓力中途放棄了,回法國去了。
                   這樣這次十字軍東征途中只剩下英國的理查這唯一的國王了。如果當時他也回到自己的國家去,而不是隨十字軍東游西逛,可能會更好。但是他認為比起待在國內處理棘手的內政問題,參加十字軍東征倒是更省心的活動。
                   理查善良而溫和,但是強壯而英勇。人們都叫他"獅心王理查"。他對作惡者的懲罰毫不手軟但卻能做到公正公平。人們愛戴他,但是同時也敬畏他,因為他疾惡如仇,對壞人嚴加懲處。
                   甚至理查的敵人都欽佩他。在第三次十字軍東征時,耶路撒冷的穆斯林國王名叫薩拉丁。盡管薩拉丁受到理查的攻擊,卻非常佩服他,甚至和他成了朋友。所以薩拉丁沒有和理查交戰,而是最終和他達成了友好協議,答應以后要愛護圣墓,對朝圣者也以禮相待。既然對這樣的安排大家都很滿意,理查也就放心地把耶路撒冷交給了薩拉丁,踏上回家的旅途。
                   在回家的路上,理查被腓特烈·巴巴羅薩的兒子抓了起來,關進了監獄,并被扣為人質向英國索要一大筆贖金。理查的朋友們不知道他在哪里,也不知道怎么找到他。
                   碰巧理查有一個寵愛的吟游詩人名叫布隆德爾。布隆德爾曾創作了一首歌,理查非常喜歡。理查被關起來的時候,布隆德爾在全國游蕩,到處吟唱這首理查喜愛的歌,希望理查能聽到,并透露他在哪里。一天,他正好就在理查被關的那座監獄高塔下吟唱。理查聽到他的歌聲,就哼唱起這首歌的副歌作為回應。于是查理的朋友們就知道他被關押的地方,付了贖金,理查被放出來了。
                   最后理查終于回到英國,回來后他依然繼續冒險。那時候大盜羅賓漢經常搶劫路上的旅客。理查設計讓自己被羅賓漢俘獲,再趁機抓住羅賓漢,將他繩之以法。理查喬裝成僧侶,正如預謀的那樣被抓了。但是他發現羅賓漢終究是個好漢子,就寬恕了他和他的手下。
                   理查的盾形徽章是三只獅子的圖案,三只獅子從上到下依次排列;現在代表英國的盾形徽章上面還有部分圖案和這個圖案一模一樣。
                   在理查的十字軍東征后,又有了第四次十字軍東征,之后在公元1212年--這個年代容易記住,因為它只是數字12的重復--1,2,1,2--有了一次只有孩子們參加的十字軍東征。這就是所謂的兒童十字軍。由一個大約12歲的法國男孩率領,他的名字叫司提反,是以第一個基督教殉道士的名字取名的。
                   法國各地的孩子離開了家,離開了父母--而他們的父母竟然同意他們出發進行這樣的遠征,對我們來說真是不可思議--向南行軍到地中海。在海邊他們期望海水會向兩旁分開,讓他們從海中露出的干地穿行過去到達耶路撒冷,就像他們在圣經里讀到的那樣,紅海海水分開,讓以色列人離開埃及。但是海水并沒有分開。
                   不過有些水手主動提出用船把孩子們送到耶路撒冷。他們說這樣做不求任何回報,只是出于對上帝的愛。可孩子們上船后就發現這些水手其實是海盜,一把孩子 們抓上船,他們就把船直接開到十字軍的敵人穆斯林的地盤。據說到那兒后,海盜把這些孩子們賣給敵人做奴隸。如果在《格林童話》里,海盜會被孩子們設的陷阱困住,可是現實畢竟不是童話,所以我也沒法編一個美滿的結局。
                   最后一次也就是第八次十字軍東征是由法國國王路易率領的。他非常虔誠,把自己的全部都奉獻給上帝,所以他死后被封為圣徒,從此以后就被稱為圣路易。但是這次十字軍東征還是失敗了,從那時起耶路撒冷一直由穆斯林統治,直到1918年被英國人奪回,從1918年到1948年以色列建國之前,耶路撒冷一直由英國人掌控。現在,以色列猶太人和巴勒斯坦人--穆斯林和基督徒--都想控制這座圣城。令人感到遺憾的是:這座對猶太人、基督徒和穆斯林來說都異常神圣的城市卻始終處于戰爭的中心。
                   并不是所有的十字軍戰士都是善良的基督徒。就像如今有些人一樣,那時很多人不過名義上是基督徒。事實上,盡管說來奇怪,相當多的十字軍戰士只是尋求刺激和冒險的惡棍,說穿了他們就是打著十字軍東征的名號來燒殺搶掠罷了。
                   十字軍東征沒有實現原來的目標,為基督徒保住耶路撒冷。盡管如此,十字軍東征確實也有很多益處。十字軍東征剛開始時,十字軍戰士的文明程度遠不如他們前去征服的人們。可是有時游歷比書本讓人學到更多的東西,長途征戰讓十字軍戰士增長了知識。他們知道了沿途各地的風俗習慣,熟悉了多種語言和文學,也學到了歷史和藝術。
                   那時還沒有公立學校。只有很少的人接受教育。十字軍東征在當時正是起到了學校的作用。它讓歐洲人增長了見識,也為他們打開了一個全新的文化和知識的世界。




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