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              > 小學英語 > 小學英語教材 > 希利爾:美國學生文史經典套裝 >  第123課

              雙語+MP3|美國學生世界歷史56 石頭和玻璃制作的《圣經》

              所屬教程:希利爾:美國學生文史經典套裝

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              qinting

              2018年10月28日

              隨身學
              掃描二維碼方便學習和分享
              http://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/10000/10122/美國學生世界歷史-56.mp3
              http://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012


              56
              Bibles Made of Stone and Glass
              石頭和玻璃制作的《圣經》

                   IN Europe during the Middle Ages, people often went to church every day and often several times a day. They did not go only when there was a church service. They went to say their prayers by themselves; they went to tell their troubles to the priest, to get advice from him, to burn a candle to the Virgin Mary, or simply to chat with their friends.
                   All during the Crusades and immediately after the Crusades, the chief thing that many people thought about was their church.
                   Almost everyone in Europe was a Christian although many towns had Jewish residents as well. You may remember that Jews had been forced to leave the Holy Land way back in 70 A.D. by the Romans. Some had made their way to Europe.
                   For Christians, there was only one church in a neighborhood, and everyone went to the same church, for there were no Baptists, nor Episcopalians, nor Methodists; all were just Christians.
                   The church was everyone's meetinghouse, so people naturally gave as much money and time and labor as they could to make their church the best that could be built. That is why there were built in France and other parts of Europe at this time many of the finest churches and cathedrals in the world. These churches and cathedrals are still standing, and because they are so beautiful, people go long distances to see them.
                   Do you know what a cathedral is? A cathedral is not just a large church. It is the church of a bishop. In the chancel of this church, there is a special chair for the bishop. This bishop's chair is called in Latin a cathedra, and so his church is named a cathedral after this chair.
                   These churches and cathedrals were nothing like the old Greek and Roman temples; they were not like anything that had ever been built before.
                   If you have ever built a house out of blocks, you probably did it this way: first you stood two blocks upright, and then you laid another block across the top of these for a roof. This is the way the Greeks and Romans built.
                   But the Christians throughout Europe at that time did not build in this way at all.
                   When you were building toy houses, instead of laying a single block across the two standing ones, you may perhaps have tried leaning two blocks together like the sides of a letter A for a roof. If you did, you know what happened: the two leaning blocks pushed over the sides, and crash! everything tumbled. Well, these churches were built somewhat in this way, with stones arched across the standing stone columns. But to keep the stone arches from pushing over the standing stone columns, the builders put up props or braces. These props or braces were made of stone, too, and these props of stone were called flying buttresses.

              Flying buttresses-apse of Notre Dame (拱扶垛--巴黎圣母院的半圓室)
                   The people in Italy thought this a crazy way of building. They thought such buildings must be shaky and might easily topple over-like a house of cards. The Goths who had conquered Italy in 476 were considered wild and ignorant and after that people called anything wild and ignorant Gothic. People called all buildings such as I have just described Gothic, although the Goths had nothing to do with the buildings.
                   Indeed, from my description you, too, may think such buildings propped up by flying buttresses must have been tottering and ugly, but they were neither. They were not rickety, for though occasionally one that was not carefully built did collapse, the largest and best are still standing today. Although there were old-fashioned people who thought no building was beautiful that was not built in the Roman or Greek style, we have come to admire the great beauty of these so-called Gothic buildings.
                   There were other ways in which the Gothic churches were different from the Greek and Roman temples. Before a Gothic church was started, a very large cross was first drawn on the ground with its head towards the east, because that is the direction of Jerusalem. On this cross-shaped plan, the church was built so that if you looked down from above on the finished building, it was shaped like a cross with the altar always toward the east.
                   Gothic churches had beautiful spires or arrows, which have been likened to fingers pointing to heaven. The doorways and windows were not square or round at the top, but pointed, like hands placed together in prayer.
                   Nearly the whole side of a Gothic church was made of glass. These large windows were not, however, plain white glass, but beautiful pictures made of colored glass. Small pieces of different colors were joined together at their edges with lead to make what looked like wonderful paintings. These pictures were much finer than ordinary paintings, for the light shone through the stained glass and made the colors brilliant as jewels-blue like the clear sky, yellow like sunlight, red like a ruby. These pictures in glass told stories from the Bible. They were like colored illustrations in a book. The people who could not read, and very few could read, were able to know the Bible stories just by looking at these beautiful illustrations.
                   Statues of saints and angels and characters in the Bible were carved in the stonework of the church. The churches were like Bibles of stone and glass.
                   Besides these holy things, strange, grotesque beasts were also made in stone-monsters like no animal that has ever been seen in nature. These creatures were usually put on the outside edge or conner of the roof or they were used for water-spouts and called gargoyles. They were supposed to scare away evil spirits from the holy place.

              Gargoyle(滴水嘴)
                   No one now knows who were the architects or the builders of these Gothic churches or who were the sculptors or artists. Almost everyone did some work on the church. Instead of giving money, men and women gave time and labor. Men carved stone or made stained glass. Women sewed and embroidered vestments and altar cloths.
                   Some of these Gothic churches took hundreds of years to build, so that the workmen who started them never lived to see them finished. Some of the most famous cathedrals are Canterbury Cathedral in England, the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, Cologne Cathedral in Germany, and Chartres Cathedral in France.
                   Cologne Cathedral took the longest of all to build, as it was not entirely finished until about seven hundred years after it was begun! Some of the cathedrals were destroyed during the many wars fought since the Middle Ages.
                   Gothic churches were built, with loving care, of stone and jeweled glass. Nothing but the best was thought good enough. Today many churches are still built with spires, pointed doors, and some stained-glass windows, and often the altar is toward the east. But although they imitate the Gothic style in these things, they seldom have stone ceilings, as Gothic churches had, nor flying buttresses, nor walls of stained glass. Real Gothic was enormously expensive and difficult, and nowadays people haven't the time, the money, nor the interest to build in such a way.
                   That is the story of Gothic churches that the Goths had nothing to do with.






                   在中世紀時的歐洲,人們通常每天都去教堂,常常一天去好幾次,他們不是只在有禮拜儀式時才去。他們去教堂可以自己做禱告;可以向神父傾訴自己的苦惱,從他那兒得到建議,可以在圣母馬利亞像前點燃蠟燭許愿,或者只是去那兒和朋友們聊聊天。
                   十字軍東征期間和剛結束的時候,許多人首先考慮的就是他們的教堂。
                   差不多所有歐洲人都是基督徒,不過許多城鎮也有些猶太居民。也許你還記得早在公元70年由于羅馬人的入侵,猶太人被迫離開圣地四處流亡,其中有些人去了歐洲。
                   對于基督徒而言,一個居民區只有一所教堂,人人都去同一座教堂,因為那時還沒有浸信會教徒,沒有圣公會教徒,沒有循道宗教徒,所有人只是基督徒。
                   既然教堂是大家的聚會所,所以人們自然會盡可能付出錢財、時間和精力把他們的教堂建得最好。這就是為什么在那個時期法國和歐洲其他地區建造了很多世界上最精美的教堂和大教堂。這些教堂和大教堂至今仍然矗立在那里,因為它們華麗壯觀,所以即使路途遙遠人們也要前去參觀。
                   你知道什么是大教堂嗎?大教堂不只是面積很大,而且它是主教的教堂。在大教堂的圣壇里,有一個專為主教而設的特別椅子。這把主教的椅子在拉丁語中被稱為"主教座",所以大教堂以這把椅子命名,也叫做主教座堂。
                   這些教堂和大教堂與古希臘和羅馬的神廟完全不一樣,和以前的任何建筑物也不一樣。
                   如果你用積木搭過房子,可能你是這樣做的:首先你把兩塊積木豎起來,然后把另一塊積木橫放在這兩塊積木頂上做屋頂。希臘人和羅馬人就是這樣建造房子的。
                   但是在中世紀歐洲,各地的基督徒建造房子完全是用另一種方式。
                   你搭玩具房子時,可能不是把一塊積木橫放在兩塊直立的積木上,而是試著把兩塊積木靠在一起做屋頂,像字母"A"的兩條斜邊一樣。如果你試過的話,就知道會是什么結果了:斜靠在一起的兩塊積木把兩邊的積木抵倒,嘩啦一聲,所有積木都倒塌了!歐洲這些教堂就有點像這樣建成的,石頭做成拱形跨在直立的石柱上。不過為了防止石拱推倒直立的石柱,建造者搭了很多支柱或支架。這些支柱或支架也是用石頭做的,這些石頭做的支撐物被稱為"拱扶垛"。
                   意大利人認為用這種方式建房子真是瘋了。他們想這樣的建筑肯定不牢固,很容易倒塌--就像紙牌搭的房子一樣。公元476年征服過意大利的哥特人被認為既野蠻又無知,從那以后人們把任何粗野、愚昧的事物都叫做"哥特式的"。我剛才描述的這類建筑物也被稱為"哥特式的",盡管哥特人和這種建筑物沒有任何關系。
                   的確,通過我的描述你可能也以為這種由拱扶垛撐起的建筑物一定搖搖欲墜、丑陋不堪,但事實并非如此。它們沒有搖搖晃晃,盡管偶爾某個建筑物因為蓋得不仔細而坍塌,但是那些最大、最重要的建筑物現在仍然屹然不動。雖然還有些守舊的人認為凡是不按古羅馬或希臘風格而造的建筑物都是不美的,但是這些所謂的哥特式建筑的華麗壯觀最終還是讓我們贊嘆不已。
                   在其他一些方面哥特式教堂與希臘和羅馬的神廟也不相同。哥特式教堂開工之前,先在地上畫一個巨大的十字架,十字架的頭向著東方因為那是耶路撒冷的方向。教堂是按這種十字架平面圖而建造的,所以在建成后,如果你從教堂高處俯瞰,教堂的形狀就像十字架,祭壇總朝向東方。
                   哥特式教堂有美麗的尖頂或"箭頭",被比作指向天堂的手指。門道和窗戶的頂部不是方形或圓形,而是尖的,就像人們禱告時合十的雙手。
                   哥特式教堂幾乎有整整一面是用玻璃做的。但是這些大玻璃窗不是平常的白玻璃,而是由彩色玻璃做成美麗圖畫。不同顏色的小塊玻璃在邊緣處用鉛條固定在一起,拼成一幅幅圖案,像精美的油畫。這些圖案比普通油畫美多了,因為陽光透過彩色的玻璃,讓畫上的色彩絢麗如寶石--藍色像是晴天,黃色如同太陽,紅色美似紅寶石。這些玻璃上的圖案講述了圣經中的故事。它們就像書中的彩色插圖。那些不識字的和識字很少的人只要看看這些美麗的插圖就能知道圣經故事了。
                   圣經里面的圣徒、天使和人物雕刻在教堂的磚石上。這些教堂猶如石頭和玻璃做成的圣經。
                   除了這些神圣的事物,還用石頭做成奇形怪狀的野獸--這些怪獸一點也不像自然界里所能看到的動物。通常這些怪獸被擺放在屋檐上或屋頂的角落里或者被用做噴水嘴,被稱為"滴水嘴"。這些怪獸據稱可以把惡魔從這神圣的地方嚇跑。
                   沒人知道這些哥特式教堂的建筑師或修建者是誰,雕刻者或藝術家是誰。幾乎每個人都為教堂出了力。人們不是捐錢而是直接付出了時間和勞動。男人們雕刻石頭或者制作彩色玻璃。女人們縫制圣衣和祭壇罩,并在上面刺繡。
                   有些哥特式教堂花了幾百年才建成,所以開工時的工匠直到去世也沒有看到教堂完工。其中最著名的大教堂有英國的坎特伯雷大教堂、巴黎的圣母院、德國的科隆大教堂和法國的沙特爾大教堂。
                   科隆大教堂是所有大教堂中建造時間最長的,因為從開始動工,建了近七百年還沒有徹底完成!中世紀以來戰亂頻繁,有些大教堂在戰火中毀掉了。
                   哥特式教堂是用石頭和飾有寶石的玻璃精心建造而成的。只有最好的才被認為是完美的。今天很多教堂仍然有尖塔、尖門、一些彩色玻璃窗,通常祭壇也向著東方。但是盡管它們在這些方面模仿哥特式風格,但是它們很少有哥特式教堂那樣的石頭天花板、拱扶垛和彩色玻璃墻。建造真正的哥特式教堂耗資巨大,非常困難,如今人們沒有那么多時間、金錢和興趣來建造這樣的教堂了。
                   這就是哥特式教堂的故事,和哥特人一點關系也沒有哦。



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