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              如何像哈佛學生一樣學習?

              所屬教程:英語學習方法

              瀏覽:

              qinting

              2018年09月07日

              隨身學
              掃描二維碼方便學習和分享

              新學期開始了,很多人可能充滿斗志,這個學期我一定要好好學習!多讀書!泡圖書館!但是真正能堅持的人卻少之又少。學習是一件講究效率的事情,如何高效學習才能獲得最好的結果?不妨看看哈佛優秀畢業生分享的技巧,或許會有所幫助。

              Sophia Chua-Rubenfeld is a graduate student at Harvard and Yale, she is also the daughter of writer Amy Chua who is also known as ‘The Tiger Mom’. Sophia was raised using the tiger parenting technique which pushes children to be as academically successful as possible.

              Sophia Chua-Rubenfield(蔡思慧)是哈佛和耶魯的畢業生,她也是美國作家Amy Chua(蔡美兒)的女兒,蔡美兒也被稱為“虎媽”。Sophia從小在虎媽式教育下長大,母親強迫她盡可能地獲得學業上的成功。

              Clearly, the philosophy works, Sophia recently became a doctor of Law at Yale law school. On her private blog, Sophia shared tips on how to study like a Harvard student.

              雖然這種高壓教育方式備受爭議,但事實證明確有效果。Sophia最近成為了耶魯法學院的法學博士,她在自己的私人博客上分享了如何像哈佛學生一樣學習的學習技巧。

              如何像哈佛學生一樣學習?

              Preliminary Steps

              準備步驟

              1. Choose classes that interest you. That way studying doesn't feel like slave labor. If you don't want to learn, then I can't help you.

              選擇自己感興趣的課程,這樣學習才不會像做苦役。如果你自己不想學習,那么誰都沒辦法幫你。

              2. Make some friends. See steps 12, 13, 23, 24.

              交一些朋友,見步驟12、13、23、24。

              General Principles

              總則

              3. Study less but study better.

              高效學習。

              4. Avoid Autopilot Brain at all costs.

              盡量避免大腦處于潛意識“自動駕駛”狀態。

              5. Vague is bad. Vague is a waste of your time.

              含糊不清很不好,這是在浪費時間。

              6. Write it down.

              寫下來。

              7. Suck it up, buckle down, get it done.

              振作起來,全力以赴,完成它。

              Plan of Attack Phase I: Class

              第一階段:上課

              8. Show up. Everything will make a lot more sense that way, and you will save yourself a lot of time in the long run.

              按時上課。這樣更有意義而且從長遠看更節省時間。

              9. Take notes by hand. I don't know the science behind it, but doing anything by hand is a way of carving it into your memory.

              手寫筆記。雖然我也不清楚這背后的科學,但是用手做任何事情都是一種幫助將其刻入記憶中的方式。

              Phase II: Study Time

              第二階段:學習時間

              10. Get out of the library. The sheer fact of being in a library doesn't fill you with knowledge. Eight hours of Facebooking in the library is still eight hours of Facebooking. Also, people who bring food and blankets to the library and just stay there during finals week start to smell weird. Go home and bathe. You can quiz yourself while you wash your hair.

              離開圖書館。在圖書館里耗時間并不能豐富你的知識儲存。在圖書館刷8個小時的手機,本質仍然是玩了8個小時手機。還有一些人會帶著食物和毯子去圖書館,并且只有考試周才會去圖書館。這樣還不如回家洗澡,還可以在洗頭的時候進行自我測試。

              11. Do a little everyday, but don't let it be your whole day."This afternoon, I will read a chapter of something and do half a problem set. Then, I will go to the gym" ALWAYS BEATS "Starting right now, I am going to read as much as I possibly can... oh wow, now it's midnight, I'm on page five, and my room reeks of ramen and dysfunction."

              每天定個小目標,但不要讓它占據一整天時間。比如“今天下午我要讀一章節書,做一半習題,然后再去健身房。”一般要優于“現在開始,我要盡可能地多讀書。。。。。。現在已經午夜了,我看到第五頁了,但是我又餓又困,好想吃東西休息。”

              12. Give yourself incentive. There's nothing worse than a gaping abyss of study time. If you know you're going out in six hours, you're more likely to get something done.

              給自己一點刺激。陷入學習的深淵真的很糟糕。如果你知道自己6個小時內要出門,更有可能會完成一些事情。

              13. Allow friends to confiscate your phone when they catch you playlng Angry Birds. Oh and if you think you need a break, you probably don't.

              如果被抓到玩手機,允許朋友沒收它。有時候你覺得自己需要休息,實際上其實不需要。

              Phase III: Assignments

              第三階段:作業

              14. Stop highlighting. Underlining is supposed to keep you focused, but it's actually a one-way ticket to Autopilot Brain. You zone out, look down, and suddenly you have five pages of neon green that you don't remember reading. Write notes in the margins instead.

              停止畫重點。有些人很喜歡用熒光筆把重點畫出來,覺得這樣可以幫助自己專注,但實際上這會讓大腦潛意識進入“自動駕駛”狀態,慢慢會走神,無意識地向下看,然后突然發現有幾頁自己不記得是否讀過。作為替代,請在空白處寫下備注。

              15. Do all your own work. You get nothing out of copying a problem set.

              自己的作業自己做。抄作業的人什么都學不到。

              16. Read as much as you can. Stop trying to cheat with Sparknotes.

              盡可能地多閱讀。不要試圖用Sparknotes作弊。

              注:Sparknotes 網絡學術研究工具

              17. Be a smart reader, not a robot. Ask yourself: What is the author trying to prove? What is the logical progression of the argument? You can usually answer these questions by reading the intoduction and conclusion of every chapter. Then, pick any two examples/anecdotes and commit them to memory(write them down). They will help you reconstruct the author's argument later on.

              做聰明的閱讀者而不是機器人。問自己一些問題,比如“作者試圖證明什么?”“論證的邏輯進展是什么?”。通常可以通過閱讀每章的提綱和結束語來回答這些問題。然后,挑選任何兩個例子/軼事,并把它們記下來(寫下來)。它們將幫助你之后重新構建作者的論點。

              18. Don't read everything, but understand everything that you read. Better to have a deep understanding of a limited amount of material, than to have a vague understanding of an entire course. Once again: Vague is bad. Vague is a waste of your time.

              不要什么都讀,但要理解自己所讀的所有。最好對有限的材料有深入地理解,而不是對整個課程有一個模糊的理解。再次重申:含糊不清很不好,這是在浪費時間。

              19. Bullet points.

              總結要點。

              PhaseIV: Reading Period (Review Week)

              第四階段:閱讀時間(復習周)

              20. Once again: do not move into the library.

              再次重申:不要去圖書館耗時間。

              21. If you don't understand it, it will definitely be on the exam. Solution: textbooks; the internet.

              你不懂的東西,考試一定會考。解決方法是看教材或者上網搜索。

              22. Do all the practice problems. This one is totally tiger mom.

              做所有練習題,這個方式真的很虎媽style。

              23. People are often contemptuous of rote learning. Even at great intellectual bastions like Harvard, you will be required to memorize fomulas, names and dates. To memorize effectively: stop reading your list over and over again. It doesn't work. Say it out loud, write it down. Remember how you made friends? Have them quiz you, then return the favor.

              人們通常看不上死記硬背。但即使是哈佛這樣的知名學府,也會要求學生背公式、名字和日期。為了有效記憶,不要再一遍又一遍讀筆記,這沒什么用。大聲說出來并且用筆寫下來,還可以和朋友相互提問。

              24. Again with the friends: ask them to listen while you explain a difficult concept to them. This forces you to articulale your understanding. Remember, vague is bad.

              讓朋友傾聽自己解釋一個較難的概念,這會強迫我們闡述自己的理解,請記住, 含糊不清一點都不好。

              25. Go for the big picture. Try to figure out where a specific concept fits into the course as a whole. This will help you tap into Big Themes-every class has Big Themes- which will streamline what you need to know. You can learn a million facts but until you understand how they fit together, you're missing the point.

              有大局觀。試著找出某個具體概念在課程中的整體定位。這會幫助我們挖掘大主題(每門課程都有大主題),精簡我們需要知道的內容。你可以學到無數事實,但除非明白它們是如何結合在一起的,否則就錯過了重點。

              Phase V: Exam Day

              第五階段:考試日

              26. Crush exam. Get A.

              戰勝考試,拿到A。


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