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              外國人最想和你聊的時事話題:噪音污染

              所屬教程:常用英語口語

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              qinting

              2018年10月28日

              隨身學
              掃描二維碼方便學習和分享


               What is noise pollution 什么是噪聲污染
                   Sound pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas, meaning seasickness.
                   The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise and rail noise.Poor urban planning may give rise to sound pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in sound pollution in the residential area.
                   Indoor and outdoor sound pollution sources include car alarms, emergency service sirens, mechanical equipment, fireworks, compressed air horns, grounds keeping equipment, barking dogs, appliances, lighting hum, audio entertainment systems, and electric megaphones, and loud people.
                   Noise health effects are both health and behavioral in nature. The unwanted sound is called noise. This unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological health. Sound pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects. Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic attacks.
                   Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79. A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss.
                   High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
                   Sound pollution is also a cause of annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction.
                   噪聲污染(sound pollution)按聲源的機械特點可分為:氣體擾動(gas disturbance)產生的噪聲、固體振動(solid vibration)產生的噪聲、液體撞擊(liquid impact)產生的噪聲以及電磁(electromagnetism)作用產生的電磁噪聲。
                   噪聲污染對人、動物、儀器儀表以及建筑物均構成危害,其危害程度主要取決于噪聲的頻率(frequency)、強度(intensity)及暴露時間(exposure time)。
                   控制噪音環境,除了考慮人的因素之外,還須兼顧經濟和技術上的可行性(feasibility)。充分的噪音控制,必須考慮噪音源(noise source)、傳音途徑(acoustic approach)、受音者所組成的整個系統。控制噪音的措施可以針對上述三個部分或其中任何一個部分。







                   Most of the cities were affected by light noise pollution.
                   多數城市受到輕度噪聲污染。
                   The civil aviation department shall take effective measures to mitigate environmental noise pollution.
                   民航部門應當采取有效措施,減輕環境噪聲污染。
                   The State applies an elimination system for out-dated equipment that produces serious environmental noise pollution.
                   國家對環境噪聲污染嚴重的落后設備實行淘汰制度。
                   Enterprises and institutions that produce environmental noise pollution must maintain normal operation of the facilities for prevention and control of such pollution.
                   產生環境噪聲污染的企事業單位,必須保持防治環境噪聲污染的設施的正常使用。
                   Any enterprise or institution that produces serious environmental noise pollution in an area where noise-sensitive structures are concentrated shall be ordered to control the pollution within a time limit.
                   對于在噪聲敏感建筑物集中區域內造成嚴重環境噪聲污染的企事業單位,限期治理。
                   How to determine this noise pollution case?
                   這起噪聲污染案件如何定性?
                   Industrial enterprises that produce environmental noise pollution shall take effective measures to minimize the impact of noise on the living environment of the neighborhood.
                   產生環境噪聲污染的工業企業,應當采取有效措施,減輕噪聲對周圍生活環境的影響。
                   It is noise pollution that we need to control in order to help people live more happily.
                   我們需要控制的是噪聲污染,這樣才有助于人們生活得更愉快。
                   Motor vehicles must be regularly serviced and kept in good repair in order to maintain excellent technical performance and help prevent and control environmental noise pollution.
                   機動車輛必須加強維修和保養,保持技術性能良好,防治環境噪聲污染。
                   After doubling the frequency of noise-polluted signal, the bandwidth of AM noise is often extended by a factor of N(N-number of doubling frequency).
                   這種被噪聲污染了的信號倍頻后,通常調幅噪聲的頻寬擴大N倍(N 為倍頻次數)。
                   Urban and community planning shall be rationally refined. Control over the noise caused by transportation, construction and social activity will be tightened.
                   合理進行城市和社區規劃,加強城市交通、施工工地、社會生活噪聲污染控制。
                   Practice shows that the said silencer has remarkable noise-reducing effectiveness, reducing noise from exhausting outlet of the steam turbine from 115 dB (A) to 63 dB (A), improving greatly the working environment, decreasing the noise pollution.
                   實踐證明,該消音器消音效果明顯,可將汽輪機排汽口的噪音由115 dB(A)降至63 dB(A),使工作環境大為改善,減輕了噪聲污染。
                   A comparison of the present results with the available information of noise level survey in the cities of foreign countries shows that noise pollution in Shanghai is very serious.
                   與國外某些大城市相對照,上海市的噪聲污染程度較為嚴重。
                   When the automobile drive into or out of the underground garage of the residential area, there will be noise pollution on the passageway ramp.
                   車輛進、出地下車庫時,在出入口坡道上會產生噪聲污染。
              Part 3 Let's Talk! 開始交流吧!
                   Policeman: Anybody in?
                   警察:有人在家嗎?
                   Maria: Yes, is there anything to help?
                   瑪利亞:有,請問您有什么事情嗎?
                   Policeman: Hello, I am from the police station. I come to ask you a few questions. Your neighbor has complained to me that you are creating a nuisance in the vicinity.
                   警察:你好,我是警察。我來這里有幾個問題問你。 你的鄰居向我投訴,說你在這個社區制造噪聲。
                   Maria: Could you tell me more specific, sir?
                   瑪利亞:警官,你可以說得更詳細點嗎?
                   Policeman: He called to tell us that you often hold a party in your house. The noise is loud enough to wake up the dead.
                   警察:他打電話告訴我們你經常在家里聚會。聲音大得很,足以吵醒死人。
                   Maria: As a matter of fact, I hold the party at times, not quite frequently. In addition to this, we didn't play the music very loudly and just loud enough for us to hear.
                   瑪利亞:事實上,我偶爾聚會,但并不是很頻繁。再說,我們的音樂聲并不大,只是我們自己能夠聽到而已。
                   Policeman: Not quite frequently? He said you hold the party every weekend late into the wee hours.
                   警察:還不頻繁?人家說你每周末都聚會,持續到凌晨一兩點。
                   Maria: If so, I am afraid that you have been mislead. Sir, I have to admit I do hold the party sometimes at weekend, but not every week. Besides, every time we ended up with the party at around half past 10 p.m.
                   瑪利亞:如果是這樣的話,恐怕你已經被誤導了。是的,先生,我不得不承認,我確實有時候在周末聚會,但不是每一周都聚。除此之外,每次我們在大約十點半左右就結束了。
                   Policeman: Anyhow, you are forbidden to do that in a residential area, which is a kind of sound pollution.
                   警察:無論如何,你也不該在居民區聚會,這是一種噪音污染。
                   Maria: Sound pollution? How can it be sound pollution? It's just a party.
                   瑪利亞:噪音污染?怎么會是噪音污染呢?我只不過是聚會而已。
                   Policeman: It belongs to sound pollution if it makes other people feel uncomfortable and influence other people's normal lives.
                   警察:只要是他人感覺不舒服,影響到他人的正常生活就屬于噪音污染。
                   Maria: Oh my god, I've never thought that I'll bring such big trouble to our neighbor.
                   瑪利亞:哦,天啊,我從沒想過我會給鄰居帶來如此大的麻煩。
                   Policeman: You can take your friend to the amusement places and entertain them there.
                   警察:你可以帶你的朋友去娛樂場所,在那里款待他們。
                   Maria: I can't agree with you more, sir. I promise that won't happen again. Thanks.
                   瑪利亞:我完全同意你的觀點,警官。我保證再也不會發生這種事了,謝謝。
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