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               What is noise pollution 什么是噪声污染
                   Sound pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas, meaning seasickness.
                   The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise and rail noise.Poor urban planning may give rise to sound pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in sound pollution in the residential area.
                   Indoor and outdoor sound pollution sources include car alarms, emergency service sirens, mechanical equipment, fireworks, compressed air horns, grounds keeping equipment, barking dogs, appliances, lighting hum, audio entertainment systems, and electric megaphones, and loud people.
                   Noise health effects are both health and behavioral in nature. The unwanted sound is called noise. This unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological health. Sound pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects. Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic attacks.
                   Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79. A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss.
                   High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
                   Sound pollution is also a cause of annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction.
                   噪声污染(sound pollution)按声源的机械特点可分为:气体扰动(gas disturbance)产生的噪声、固体振动(solid vibration)产生的噪声、液体撞击(liquid impact)产生的噪声以及电磁(electromagnetism)作用产生的电磁噪声。
                   噪声污染对人、动物、仪器仪表以及建筑物均构成危害,其危害程度主要取决于噪声的频率(frequency)、强度(intensity)及暴露时间(exposure time)。
                   控制噪音环?#24120;?#38500;了考虑人的因素之外,还须兼顾经济和技术上的可行性(feasibility)。充分的噪音控制,必须考虑噪音源(noise source)、传音途径(acoustic approach)、受音者所组成的整个系统。控制噪音的措施可以针对上述三个部分或其中任何一个部分。

                   Most of the cities were affected by light noise pollution.
                   The civil aviation department shall take effective measures to mitigate environmental noise pollution.
                   The State applies an elimination system for out-dated equipment that produces serious environmental noise pollution.
                   Enterprises and institutions that produce environmental noise pollution must maintain normal operation of the facilities for prevention and control of such pollution.
                   Any enterprise or institution that produces serious environmental noise pollution in an area where noise-sensitive structures are concentrated shall be ordered to control the pollution within a time limit.
                   How to determine this noise pollution case?
                   Industrial enterprises that produce environmental noise pollution shall take effective measures to minimize the impact of noise on the living environment of the neighborhood.
                   It is noise pollution that we need to control in order to help people live more happily.
                   Motor vehicles must be regularly serviced and kept in good repair in order to maintain excellent technical performance and help prevent and control environmental noise pollution.
                   After doubling the frequency of noise-polluted signal, the bandwidth of AM noise is often extended by a factor of N(N-number of doubling frequency).
                   这种被噪声污染了的信号倍频后,通常调幅噪声的频宽扩大N倍(N 为倍频次数)。
                   Urban and community planning shall be rationally refined. Control over the noise caused by transportation, construction and social activity will be tightened.
                   Practice shows that the said silencer has remarkable noise-reducing effectiveness, reducing noise from exhausting outlet of the steam turbine from 115 dB (A) to 63 dB (A), improving greatly the working environment, decreasing the noise pollution.
                   ?#23548;?#35777;明,该消音器消音效果明显,可将汽轮机排汽口的噪音由115 dB(A)降至63 dB(A),?#26500;?#20316;环境大为改善,减轻了噪声污染。
                   A comparison of the present results with the available information of noise level survey in the cities of foreign countries shows that noise pollution in Shanghai is very serious.
                   When the automobile drive into or out of the underground garage of the residential area, there will be noise pollution on the passageway ramp.
              Part 3 Let's Talk! 开始交流吧!
                   Policeman: Anybody in?
                   Maria: Yes, is there anything to help?
                   Policeman: Hello, I am from the police station. I come to ask you a few questions. Your neighbor has complained to me that you are creating a nuisance in the vicinity.
                   警察:你好,我是警察。我来这里有几个问题问你。 你的邻居向我投诉,说你在这个社区制造噪声。
                   Maria: Could you tell me more specific, sir?
                   Policeman: He called to tell us that you often hold a party in your house. The noise is loud enough to wake up the dead.
                   Maria: As a matter of fact, I hold the party at times, not quite frequently. In addition to this, we didn't play the music very loudly and just loud enough for us to hear.
                   玛利亚:事实上,我?#32423;?#32858;会,但并不是很频繁。再说,我们的音乐声并不大,只是我们自己能够听到而?#36873;?br>      Policeman: Not quite frequently? He said you hold the party every weekend late into the wee hours.
                   Maria: If so, I am afraid that you have been mislead. Sir, I have to admit I do hold the party sometimes at weekend, but not every week. Besides, every time we ended up with the party at around half past 10 p.m.
                   Policeman: Anyhow, you are forbidden to do that in a residential area, which is a kind of sound pollution.
                   Maria: Sound pollution? How can it be sound pollution? It's just a party.
                   玛利亚:噪音污染?怎么会是噪音污染呢?#35838;?#21482;?#36824;?#26159;聚会而?#36873;?br>      Policeman: It belongs to sound pollution if it makes other people feel uncomfortable and influence other people's normal lives.
                   Maria: Oh my god, I've never thought that I'll bring such big trouble to our neighbor.
                   Policeman: You can take your friend to the amusement places and entertain them there.
                   Maria: I can't agree with you more, sir. I promise that won't happen again. Thanks.
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